Wednesday, February 26, 2020

coronaviruses (COVID-19)

 coronaviruses (COVID-19)

What is a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are an outsized family of viruses which will cause illness in animals or humans. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections starting from the cold to more severe diseases like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). the foremost recently discovered coronavirus causes coronavirus disease COVID-19.

What is COVID-19?

 COVID-19 is that the communicable disease caused by the foremost recently discovered coronavirus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.

 What are the symptoms of COVID-19?

 The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, pharyngitis or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and start gradually. Some people become infected but don’t develop any symptoms and do not feel unwell. most of the people (about 80%) get over the disease without having special treatment. Around 1 out of each 6 people that gets COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Older people, and people with underlying medical problems like high vital sign , heart problems or diabetes, are more likely to develop serious illness. About 2% of individuals with the disease have died. People with fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical attention.

How does COVID-19 spread?

 People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus. The disease can spread from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth which are spread when an individual with COVID-19 coughs or exhales. These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person. people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. People also can catch COVID-19 if they inhale droplets from an individual with COVID-19 who coughs out or exhales droplets. this is often why it's important to remain quite 1 meter (3 feet) faraway from an individual who is sick.

WHO is assessing ongoing research on the ways COVID-19 is spread and can still share updated findings.

Can the virus that causes COVID-19 to be transmitted through the air?
Studies so far suggest that the virus that causes COVID-19 is especially transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets instead of through the air. See the previous answer on “How does COVID-19 spread?”

Can CoVID-19 be caught from an individual who has no symptoms?
The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. the danger of catching COVID-19 from someone with no symptoms in the least is extremely low. However, many of us with COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms. this is often particularly true at the first stages of the disease. it's, therefore, possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for instance, just a light cough and doesn't feel ill. WHO is assessing ongoing research on the amount of transmission of COVID-19 and can still share updated findings.

Can I catch COVID-19 from the feces of somebody with the disease?
The risk of catching COVID-19 from the feces of an infected person appears below. While initial investigations suggest the virus could also be present in feces in some cases, spread through this route isn't a main feature of the outbreak. WHO is assessing ongoing research on the ways COVID-19 is spread and can still share new findings. Because this is often a risk, however, it's one more reason to wash hands regularly, after using the toilet and before eating.

What can I do to protect myself and prevent the spread of disease?

 Protection measures for everybody
Stay conscious of the newest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website and through your national and native public health authority. COVID-19 remains affecting most people in China with some outbreaks in other countries. most of the people who become infected experience mild illness and recover, but it is often more severe for others. lookout of your health and protect others by doing the following:

Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.
Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that will get on your hands.
Maintain a minimum of 1 meter (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
Why? When someone coughs or sneezes they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which can contain a virus. If you're too close, you'll inhale the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease.
Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth.
Why? Hands touch many surfaces and may devour viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and may cause you to sick.
Make sure you, and therefore the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. this suggests covering your mouth and nose together with your bent elbow or tissue once you cough or sneeze. Then eliminate the used tissue immediately.
Why? Droplets spread the virus. By following good respiratory hygiene you protect the people around you from viruses like cold, flu and COVID-19.
Stay home if you are feeling unwell. If you've got a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention and call beforehand. Follow the directions of your local health authority.
Why? National and native authorities will have the foremost up so far information on things in your area. Calling beforehand will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the proper clinic. this may also protect you and help prevent the spread of viruses and other infections.
Stay informed on the newest developments about COVID-19. Follow the advice given by your healthcare provider, your national and native public health authority or your employer on the way to protect yourself et al. from COVID-19.
Why? National and native authorities will have the foremost up so far information on whether COVID-19 is spreading in your area. they're best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to guard themselves.
Protection measures for persons who are in or have recently visited (past 14 days) areas where COVID-19 is spreading
Follow the guidance outlined above. (Protection measures for everyone)
Stay at home if you start to feel unwell, even with mild symptoms like headache and slight runny nose, until you recover.
Why? Avoiding contact with others and visits to medical facilities will allow these facilities to work more effectively and help protect you et al. from possible COVID-19 and other viruses.

If you develop fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical advice promptly as this might flow from a respiratory tract infection or other serious condition. Call beforehand and tell your provider of any recent travel or contact with travelers.
Why? Calling beforehand will allow your health care provider to quickly direct you to the proper clinic. this may also help to stop the possible spread of COVID-19 and other viruses.

How likely am I to catch COVID-19?

 The risk depends on where you reside or where you've got traveled recently. the danger of infection is higher in areas where a variety of people are diagnosed with COVID-19. quite 95% of all COVID-19 cases are occurring in China, with the bulk of these in Hubei Province. For people in most other parts of the planet, your risk of getting COVID-19 is currently low, however, it’s important to remember things and preparedness efforts in your area.

WHO is functioning with health authorities in China and around the world to watch and answer COVID-19 outbreaks.

Should I worry about COVID-19?

 If you're not in a neighborhood where COVID-19 is spreading, or if you've got not traveled from one among those areas or haven't been in close contact with someone who has and is feeling unwell, your chances of getting it are currently low. However, it’s understandable that you simply may feel stressed and anxious about things. It’s an honest idea to urge the facts to assist you accurately determine your risks in order that you'll take reasonable precautions. Your healthcare provider, your national public health authority and your employer are all potential sources of accurate information on COVID-19 and whether it's in your area. it's important to be told of things where you reside and take appropriate measures to guard yourself. (See Protection measures for everyone).

If you're in a neighborhood where there's an epidemic of COVID-19 you would like to require the danger of infection seriously. Follow the recommendation issued by national and native health authorities. Although for many people COVID-19 causes only mild illness, it can make some people very ill. More rarely, the disease is often fatal. Older people and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high vital signs, heart problems or diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable. (See Protection measures for persons who are in or have recently visited (past 14 days) areas where COVID-19 is spreading).

Who is at risk of developing severe illness?

 While we are still learning about how COVID-2019 affects people, older persons and persons with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high vital signs, a heart condition, or diabetes) appear to develop serious illness more often than others.

Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating the COVID-19?

 No. Antibiotics don't work against viruses, they only work on bacterial infections. COVID-19 is caused by an epidemic, so antibiotics don't work. Antibiotics shouldn't be used as a way of prevention or treatment of COVID-19. they ought to only be used as directed by a physician to treat a bacterial infection.

Is there a vaccine, drug or treatment for COVID-19?

 Not yet. To date, there's no vaccine and no specific antiviral medicine to stop or treat COVID-2019. However, those affected should receive care to alleviate symptoms. People with serious illnesses should be hospitalized. Most patients recover because of supportive care.

Possible vaccines and a few specific drug treatments are under investigation. they're being tested through clinical trials. WHO is coordinating efforts to develop vaccines and medicines to stop and treat COVID-19.

The most effective ways to guard yourself et al. against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue, and maintain a distance of a minimum of 1 meter (3 feet) from people that are coughing or sneezing. For more information, see basic protective measures against the new coronavirus.

Is COVID-19 the same as SARS?

  No. The virus that causes COVID-19 and therefore the one that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are associated with one another genetically, but they're different. SARS is more deadly but much less infectious than COVID-19. There are no outbreaks of SARS anywhere within the world since 2003.

Should I wear a mask to protect myself?

People with no respiratory symptoms, like cough, don't get to wear a medical mask. WHO recommends the utilization of masks for people that have symptoms of COVID-19 and for those caring for people who have symptoms, like cough and fever. the utilization of masks is crucial for doctors and other people who are taking care of somebody (at home or during a health care facility).

WHO advises the rational use of medical masks to avoid unnecessary wastage of precious resources and misuse of masks (see Advice on the utilization of masks). Use a mask as long as you've got respiratory symptoms (coughing or sneezing), have suspected COVID-19 infection with mild symptoms, or are caring for somebody with suspected COVID-19 infection. A suspected COVID-19 infection is linked to travel in areas where cases are reported, or close contact with someone who has traveled in these areas and has become ill.

The most effective ways to guard yourself et al. against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue and maintain a distance of a minimum of 1 meter (3 feet) from people that are coughing or sneezing. For more information, see basic protective measures against the new coronavirus.

How to put on, use, take off and dispose of a mask?


  1. Remember, a mask should only be used by health workers, care takers, and individuals with respiratory symptoms, such as fever and cough.
  2. Before touching the mask, clean hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water
  3. Take the mask and inspect it for tears or holes.
  4. Orient which side is the top side (where the metal strip is).
  5. Ensure the proper side of the mask faces outwards (the coloured side).
  6. Place the mask to your face. Pinch the metal strip or stiff edge of the mask so it moulds to the shape of your nose.
  7. Pull down the mask’s bottom so it covers your mouth and your chin.
  8. After use, take off the mask; remove the elastic loops from behind the ears while keeping the mask away from your face and clothes, to avoid touching potentially contaminated surfaces of the mask.
  9. Discard the mask in a closed bin immediately after use.
  10. Perform hand hygiene after touching or discarding the mask – Use alcohol-based hand rub or, if visibly soiled, wash your hands with soap and water.

How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?

 The “incubation period” means the time between catching the virus and starting to have symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the time period for COVID-19 range from 1-14 days, most ordinarily around five days. These estimates are going to be updated as more data become available.

Can humans become infected with the COVID-19 from an animal source?

 
Coronaviruses are an outsized family of viruses that are common in animals. Rarely, people get infected with these viruses which can then spread to people . for instance, SARS-CoV was related to civet cats and MERS-CoV is transmitted by dromedary camels. Possible animal sources of COVID-19 haven't yet been confirmed.

To protect yourself, like when visiting live animal markets, avoid direct contact with animals and surfaces in touch with animals. Ensure good food safety practices in the least times. Handle meat, milk or animal organs with care to avoid contamination of uncooked foods and avoid consuming raw or undercooked animal products.

Can I catch COVID-19 from my pet?

 No. there's no evidence that companion animals or pets like cats and dogs are infected or could spread the virus that causes COVID-19.

How long does the virus survive on surfaces?

 It is not certain how long the virus that causes COVID-19 survives on surfaces, but it seems to behave like other coronaviruses. Studies suggest that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the COVID-19 virus) may persist on surfaces for a couple of hours or up to many days. this might vary under different conditions (e.g. sort of surface, temperature or humidity of the environment).

If you think that a surface could also be infected, clean it with simple disinfectant to kill the virus and protect yourself et al... Clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose.

Is it safe to receive a package from any area where COVID-19 has been reported?

 Yes. The likelihood of an infected person contaminating commercial goods is low and therefore the risk of catching the virus that causes COVID-19 from a package that has been moved, traveled, and exposed to different conditions and temperatures is additionally low.

Is there anything I should not do?

 
The following measures aren't effective against COVID-2019 and may be harmful:

  • Smoking
  • Taking traditional herbal remedies
  • Wearing multiple masks
  • Taking self-medication like antibiotics
In any case, if you've got a fever, cough and difficulty breathing seek medical aid early to scale back the danger of developing a more severe infection and make certain to share your recent travel history together with your health care provider.
     

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